Here you will find answers to the questions we get asked the most about Non-Chemical Water Treatment. Still, have any unanswered questions? Get in touch with us and we would be glad to help.
Closed water systems are carefully designed to create precise and adaptable environmental conditions within buildings or process plant. The design necessitates the use of small bore control and regulating valves. If corrosion debris, installation debris or microbes are present these orifices may become blocked or restricted and the system will not operate to design parameters. Ultimately if systems are not cared for the pipe work and fittings may fail prematurely due to corrosion and other contributory factors. Water quality and water treatment are therefore very important.
When water is referred to as ‘hard’ this simply means, that it contains more minerals than ordinary water. These are especially the minerals calcium and magnesium. The degree of hardness of the water increases, when more calcium and magnesium dissolve. Water with hardness more than 5 ppm is considered as hard. Magnesium and calcium are positively charged ions. Because of their presence, other positively charged ions will dissolve less easily in hard water than in water that does not contain calcium and magnesium. This is the cause of the fact that soap doesn’t really dissolve in hard water.
Industrial Water Treatment can be classified into the following categories: * Boiler water treatment * Cooling water treatment * Wastewater treatment Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes, such as: heating, cooling, processing, cleaning, and rinsing, so that operating costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode, and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode, but left untreated, the warm, dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to grow, and Legionnaires’ Disease can be the fatal consequence. In many cases, effluent water from one process might be perfectly suitable for reuse in another process somewhere else on site. With the proper treatment, a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be reusable. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water consumption, lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled wastewater.
Calcium, manganese and magnesium are the most common minerals.
Hard water causes scale to build up in pipes, heat exchanger, cooling tower and many other hot water systems. These scale deposits lead to lower cooling efficiencies, increased power consumption and lowering the life of mother plant.
Industrial water treatment seeks to manage four main problem areas: scaling, corrosion, microbiological activity and disposal of residual waste water. Boilers do not have many problems with microbes as the high temperature prevents their growth. Scaling occurs when the chemistry and temperature conditions are such that the dissolved mineral salts in the water are caused to precipitate and form solid deposits. These can be mobile, like a fine silt, or can build up in layers on the metal surfaces of the systems. Scale is a problem because it insulates and heat exchange becomes less efficient as the scale thickens, which wastes energy. Scale also narrows pipe widths and therefore increases the energy used in pumping the water through the pipes. Corrosion occurs when the parent metal oxidises (as iron rusts, for example) and gradually the integrity of the plant equipment is compromised. The corrosion products can cause similar problems to scale, but corrosion can also lead to leaks, which in a pressurized system can lead to catastrophic failures. Microbes can thrive in untreated cooling water, which is warm and sometimes full of organic nutrients, as wet cooling towers are very efficient air scrubbers. Dust, flies, grass, fungal spores and so on collect in the water and create a sort of “microbial soup” if not treated with biocides. Most outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaires’ Disease have been traced to unmanaged cooling towers, and many country have had stringent Health & Safety guidelines concerning cooling tower operations for many years. Disposal of residual wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem. Most petroleum refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers, lakes or oceans.
It has known that these two salts, calcium and magnesium are responsible for much of scale because they precipitate out of water more readily than other minerals such as sodium salts. These precipitates are held in aqueous suspension and when subjected to the normal temperature changes and pressure changes which accelerates the clustering of these suspended molecules. When the cluster achieves a size larger than that which can be maintained in suspension, the scaling process is initiated. In a pipe or tubing, the fluid velocity is greater in the center than close to the wall. The natural tendency for scale deposits to form is where the velocity of the fluid is lower so scale forms on the wall of pipes and lower velocity surfaces of heat exchangers for these reasons.
Removal of lime scale deposits from pipe lines, cooling towers, heat exchangers etc. with the help of de-scaling agents. Descaling agents usually contain an acid as the active ingredient, e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, or sulfuric acid.
The effectiveness of heat exchange in your facility is directly related to your operational costs. The continued scarcity of basic fuels is also progressively increasing your manufacturing costs. With a better heat transfer in your application, your fuel consumption will decrease and your equipment will work under lower stress, thereby extending equipment life, and improving your profit picture.
Delta is a non chemical water treatment device, which inhibits the scale built-up in new pipes and progressively removes scale from existing pipes, heat exchange units, condensers etc. It works with a combination of adsorption, turbulence and galvanic action
When water contains a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, it is called hard water. Hard water is known to clog pipes and to complicate soap and detergent dissolving in water. Water softening is a technique that serves the removal of the ions that cause the water to be hard, in most cases calcium and magnesium ions. Iron ions may also be removed during softening. Most conventional water softening devices depend on a process known as ion-exchange in which “hardness” ions trade places with sodium and chloride ions that are loosely bound to an ion exchange resin orazeolite (Many zeolite minerals occur in nature, but specialized one are often made artificially.
A water softener is a unit that is used to soften water, by removing the minerals that cause the water to be hard. Water softeners are specific ion exchangers that are designed to remove ions, which are positively charged. Softeners mainly remove calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions. Calcium and magnesium are often referred to as ‘hardness minerals’. Softeners are sometimes even applied to remove iron. The softening devices are able to remove up to five milligrams per liter (5 mg/L) of dissolved iron. Softeners can operate automatic, semi-automatic, or manual. Each type is rated on the amount of hardness it can remove before regeneration is necessary. A water softener collects hardness minerals within its conditioning tank and from time to time flushes them away to drain. Ion exchangers are often used for water softening. When an ion exchanger is applied for water softening, it will replace the calcium and magnesium ions in the water with other ions, for instance sodium or potassium. The exchanger ions are added to the ion exchanger reservoir as sodium and potassium salts (NaCl and KCl).
No, it is neither a softener nor a de-mineralize. It treats the water physically, without affecting its chemical properties.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a separation process that uses pressure to force a solution through a membrane that retains the solute on one side and allows the pure solvent to pass to the other side. More formally, it is the process of forcing a solvent from a region of high solute concentration through a membrane to a region of low solute concentration by applying a pressure in excess of the osmotic pressure. This is the reverse of the normal osmosis process, which is the natural movement of solvent from an area of low solute concentration, through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration when no external pressure is applied. The membrane here is semi permeable, meaning it allows the passage of solvent but not of solute. The membranes used for reverse osmosis have a dense barrier layer in the polymer matrix where most separation occurs. In most cases the membrane is designed to allow only water to pass through this dense layer while preventing the passage of solutes (such as salt ions). This process requires that a high pressure be exerted on the high concentration side of the membrane, usually 2–17 bar (30–250 psi) for fresh and brackish water, and 40–70 bar (600–1000 psi) for seawater, which has around 24 bar (350 psi) natural osmotic pressure which must be overcome.
NO. Delta device is not a R.O. Plant.
The device will treat all water sources such as municipality water, lake water, pond water, river water or bore well water etc., cool or warm water and water which have been polished by a water softener or water purification system.
The effectiveness of the device depends on the volume of flow. Should the flow be reduced by an open bypass, the effectiveness is reduced. Placing the unit in the feed water makeup line ends its effectiveness. It should be placed where all water panes through it each cycle. The best place to install the device is immediately after the re-circulating pump.
All crystallization events require that a THERMODYNAMICS DRIVING FORCE exists. In the case of carbonate scale from hard water this driving force can be expressed as a ration of the CONCENTRATION of CALCIUM IONS and CARBONATE IONS in the water to their concentration in water EQUILIBRIUM with scale crystals. This is termed as the SUPERSATURATION RATIO. If its value is greater than one, scaling can occur, and if the value is less than one. Any scaling will tend to dissolve. The parameters that control the supersaturation ratio for CaCO3 are the water composition i.e. hardness, alkalinity, pH, etc., temperature and pressure. The mechanisms by which DELTA Device can alter the supersaturation ratio of the water locally, and which therefore, affect this precipitation are scientifically proven. a) The DELTA Device alloy adsorbs positive ions, which in the case of hard water are predominantly calcium ions, into the layer of water in contact with the DELTA Device. In order to retain overall neutral charge negative ions such as carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl, accumulate in the water volume element adjacent to this layer. By this surface chemical adsorption effect DELTA Device creates an environment of an increase in the supersaturation ratio in the narrow water volume close to the DELTA Device surface enhancing the precipitation of calcium carbonate crystals. b) The turbulence of the water flowing past the DELTA Device causes pressure variation in the water. In regions of low pressure i.e. down-streams of the turbulence bars and the DELTA Device itself, carbon dioxide will come out of solution. This performs a dual role locally. The condition artificially stabilizes the growing crystals created by the first mechanism and, in addition, the total system becomes less likely to further precipitate calcium carbonate. Having precipitated the salts into the core in the right size range (0.01μ -0.5μ) the turbulence in the water physically removes the precipitates from the surface of the core and washes it downstream. If the flow is not turbulent, the DELTA Device will not work. The minimum flow rate is approximately 5ft/sec in the pipe or 9ft/sec in the unit itself.
Many variables enter here: scale type, age, temperature etc.. Some units have shown results in the first day of operation; others may take several months. The action is related to the age of scale, its composition, the conductivity of the fluid and its velocity. It is non-violent, slow and progressive
No. Treated water is neither a soft water nor a de-mineralized water. Thus the treated water can only be circulated in the systems.
The Delta Device is only effective on scale deposits that are soluble in water, where systems are subjected to corrosion, leaks could occur if they were previously sealed by the scale. The Device has no adverse effects on materials or construction, such as gasket, seals, piping etc.
Usually men and material required for installation are under buyer’s scope. However in that case our engineers may be called for the supervision on request. We also undertake to install the Device on a turn-key basis at a nominal charge.
a). To substantially reduce or eliminate the cost of water treatment chemicals and associated expenses for storage, handling, disposal and insurance b). To eliminate discharge of toxic chemicals. c). To treat water when chemicals are too expensive or prohibited. d). To control the building of scale, protect heat transfer efficiency, and eliminate the need of rodding or acid treatment. e) .To help control difficult bacteria problems such as algae, yeast and legion Ella using simple and very effective devices.
a. Prevention of scale b. No recurring cost c. No corrosion risk d. No maintenance required e. Energy savings f. No changes in the chemical composition of water g. No pollution
a. Compressors b. Calorifiers c. Evaporators d. Humidifiers e. D. G. Sets f. Plastic moulding machines g. Heat exchangers h. Bottle washers/dishwashers i. A.C. Plants & Chillers j. Dairy plants k. Furnaces l. And many more
Monitor the temperature spread across the condenser. Since the condenser increases in efficiency, the load can be produced. Record this change. Head temperature will decrease and oil temperature will decrease. This load change has several side effects: (1) Money saved in energy consumed; (2) Increased life of equipment.
In most cases of water use, a means of circulation is required. When the scale is removed, the flow rate increases and the load on the pump motor are reduced. To convert this savings into money will require a simple ampere reading, before and after. The reduced load in ampere multiplied by voltage will reflect watts of energy saved.
Less than one major overhaul to your system normal payback in two years by energy saved. You can ask us for the quotation for the exact size.
That depends on our order schedule; delivery could take as much as 90 days.
In a once through system, the scale is flushed away. In a recirculating system, the scale will settle in a slow flow area such as sump. This can be removed by bleed-off or physically removed if the particles are too large to flush out.
Yes! New scale can form if the Delta device is removed from a clean system. Keeping the Delta device in the system keeps it clean and proper bleed-off or blow down is maintained..
The natural water elements are not contaminated and can be returned to municipal water disposal systems. This feature on a domestic hot water system is the only way to go.
None. When water flow slows or stops, the action stops also.
“Delta device” is constructed of stainless steel, and normal pressures of 150 P.S.I. are no problem.
Pressure losses across the system are very small. Usually the pressure drop in the system is less than 1 psi.
The effect of shutting off flow is to stop the effectiveness of the Device. Of course, at no flow, there is no delivery of scale forming minerals to the surface either.
There will not be any running cost for this device. There is no requirement for energy, electricity or consumables of any kind.
It will remain the rest of the system scale-free without any chemical addition.
No. The device neither adds nor abets the formation of rust.
No. There will not be any addition in corrosion or algae formation.
There is no danger to operating personnel from the device. In fact, since scale control chemicals are eliminated, this also eliminates the danger of chemical handling accidents.
Selection chart is mentioned in our technical literature, which may be provided on demand.
The life of Delta Device depends on many variables like up-keep handling etc. Nevertheless, it’s expected that this device can successfully operate, if properly maintained for 10-15 years.
We offer a one year performance and workmanship warranty, five year replacement warranty added with an unconditional buy-back guarantee for the period of 6 months.
Delivering consistently high quality products is a fundamental part of the way DELTA does business. Our products are powered with stringent quality standards including ISO 9001 and Responsible Care.
For inquiries Get in touch with us